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Tuesday, October 23, 2007

Kamma (caste) - source wikipedia

Kamma (caste) - source wikipedia

Kamma, also Choudhary.


Warriors, Politicians, Zamindars, Land Lords, Farmers.

Significant populations in Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka

Languages Telugu, Tamil, Kannada

Religions Hinduism

Kamma or the Kammavaru are a caste or social group found largely in the Southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Tamilnadu and Karnataka. They constitute about 5% of the population of Andhra Pradesh which would make them the fifth largest community 1. The Kamma population was 795,732 in the year 1881 2. In the last decades of the previous century some of them migrated to other parts of the world, particularly to the USA, UK and Australia.

* 1 Ancient history
o 1.1 Origin
o 1.2 Ancestry
* 2 Medieval history
o 2.1 Identity
o 2.2 Kakatiya period
o 2.3 Vijayanagar period
o 2.4 Golkonda period
o 2.5 British period
* 3 Modern history
* 4 Distribution
* 5 Zamindaris
* 6 Surnames
* 7 Sub-Divisions
* 8 Religion
* 9 Politics
* 10 Crossroads
* 11 See also
* 12 Notes
* 13 References
o 13.1 Inscriptions
* 14 External links

Ancient history

There are many theories about the origins of the word "Kamma" and the social group known as the Kammas but none is conclusive.

Buddhist origin

The theory is that the people who lived in the Krishna river valley, where Buddhism prevailed, got the name from the Theravada Buddhist concept of Kamma (in Pali) or Karma (in Sanskrit). This region was once known as Kammarashtram / Kammarattam / Kammanadu, which was under the control of the Pallavas, Eastern Chalukyas and Cholas. Inscriptions mentioning Kammanadu are available since 3rd century C.E. According to some historians the Kammas existed since the time of the Christ

Kambhoja/Pallava origin

Some historians opined that the name Kamma is probably derived from Kambhoja, an ancient Aryan warrior clan. Avadh Bihari Lal Avasthi comments as follows: We find Kambhi, Kamma, Kumbhi etc castes in South India. Possibly, there has also been a Kamboja country in Southern India. The Garuda Purana locates a Kambhoja principality/settlement in the neighborhood of Ashmaka, Pulinda, Jimuta, Narrashtra, Lata and Karnata countries, and also specifically informs us that this section of Kambojas were living in the southern part of India.

pulinda ashmaka jimuta narrashtara nivasinah

carnata kamboja ghata dakshinapathvasinah.

Kurmi origin

Another origin of Kammas is speculated as: Buddhist Kurmis from the Gangetic plains migrated to the Krishna river delta in large numbers to escape the persecution of Pushyamitra Sunga (184 BCE). Buddhism was already flourishing in Dharanikota, Bhattiprolu, Chandavolu etc in this fertile area. Historians surmised that the Sanskrit word Kurmi/Kurma became Kamma in later years. The first records of the word Kammarashtram appeared in the Jaggayyapeta inscription of the Ikshvaku King Madhariputra Purushadatta (3rd century CE). Kammarashtram extended from the Krishna River to Kandukur (Prakasam Dt.). The next record was that of Pallava King Kumara Vishnu II followed by that of Eastern Chalukya king Mangi Yuvaraja (627-696 CE). The subsequent inscriptions of Telugu Cholas/Chodas and Kakatiya dynasty mentioned ‘Kammanadu’. This region is also known as Pallavanadu/Palanadu/Palnadu due to Pallava rule.

The kings and military persona of Kammanadu started using the title Nayaka/Nayakudu from 10th century onwards as observed in many inscriptions. There are about 1200 Kamma surnames (Intiperu) which are discernible from this time. The surnames and Gothras of Kammas and Velamas were catalogued by Badabanala Bhatta in 1068 CE. The names of the ancestral villages were adopted as Gothras. This shows that the ancestors of Kammas and Velamas were either Buddhists or Jains who did not follow Gothra system and that both the social groups had a common history. The historical reasons for the dichotomy of the two groups are not known, although many stories abound. The inscriptions of many Kamma Nayaks mentioned that they belong to Durjaya clan (Vamsa). For instance, the inscription (1125 CE) of Pinnama Nayudu in the temple of Sagareswara in Madala village mentioned that he belonged to Durjaya clan and Vallutla Gothra. Another inscription (1282 CE) in the same temple mentioned that Devineni Erra Nayudu, Kommi Nayudu, Surappa Nayudu and Pothi Nayudu belonged to the lineage of Buddhavarma, Durjaya clan and Vallutla Gothra. The inscription at Ravuru mentioned that the bodyguards of Queen Rudrama Devi, Ekki Nayudu, Rudra Nayudu, Pinarudra Nayudu and Pothi Nayudu belong to Durjaya vamsa and Vallutla Gothra. It is worth mentioning here that many of the martial clans of Kammas belong to Vallutla Gothra. Many of the Telugu Chodas of Kammanadu had relations with Eastern Chalukyas and later with Kakatiyas. According to many inscriptions and “Velugotivari Vamsavali” Kammas with surnames such as Yalampati, Sammeta, Maccha, Konda, Choda, Vasireddy, Katta, Adapa etc., belong to Choda-Chalukya ancestry. The Vasireddy Clan had a title “Chalukya Narayana”. Historians surmised that by the end of 10th century Durjayas, Chodas, Chalukyas and Haihayas of Kammanadu merged into Kammas..
Medieval history

The division of warrior class into many castes and their consolidation commenced during the time of Kakatiya king Rudra I (1158-1195 CE). Badabanala Bhatta prescribed Surnames and Gothras of Kammas. The affiliation of Kammas as a caste to the ruling dynasties could not be ascribed till 11th century. Traces of evidence were found in the inscriptions of Telugu Cholas/Chodas of Velanadu starting from Gonka I (1075-1115 CE), found in many places in Kammanadu. The Dharanikota kings (1130-1251 CE) who belonged to Kota clan of Kammas had marital alliances with Telugu Cholas. Similarly, Kota kings married the women from Kakatiya dynasty (E.g., Kota Betharaja married Ganapamba, daughter of Ganapati Deva). The Kakatiya Ganapati Deva married the sisters of Jayapa Senani, a warrior hailing from Diviseema. Jayapa Nayudu is also well known for his contributions to the field of Indian dance (1231 CE) and was the head of the elephant corps in the Kakatiya army. Around this time many other warriors from Kammanadu joined the forces of the Kakatiya dynasty.
Kakatiya period

Kammas grew to prominence during the Kakatiya dynasty's reign (1083-1323 CE) by also holding important positions in their army. One of the most famous commanders during the time of Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra II was Daadi Nagadeva who played a prominent role in warding off the attack of the Yadava king of Devagiri. Nagadeva’s son Ganna Mantri, also called Ganna Senani or Yugandhar, who upon his conversion to Islam changed his name to Malik Maqbul and was a great warrior and a patron of arts and literature. Poet Maarana dedicated his “Markandeya Puranam” to Ganna (Malik Maqbul). Nagadeva’s other sons Ellaya Nayaka and Mechaya Nayaka were also valiant fighters. Another warrior of repute was Muppidi Nayaka who went on an expion to Kanchi, defeated the Pandya king and merged it with Kakatiya dynasty in 1316 CE. In prolonged battles with Muslims between 1296 and 1323 CE. thousands of Kamma Nayakas perished along with others, in the defense of Warangal. The inhuman atrocities perpetrated by the aliens on Telugu people later prompted two Kamma chieftains, Musunuri Prolaya Nayaka and Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka, who served the Kakatiya king Prataparudra, to raise the banner of revolt. After the fall of Warangal they united the Nayaka chieftains, wrested Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate and ruled for 50 years. (Musunuri Nayaks)
Vijayanagar period

Subsequent to the martyrdom of Kaapaaneedu (Musunuri Kapaya Nayaka) many Kammas migrated to the Vijayanagar kingdom. During the reign of Sri Krishnadevaraya Kammas belonging to thirty seven Gothras were living in the city of Vijayanagar. Kamma Nayaks formed the bulwark of Vijayanagar army and were appointed as governor in many areas of Tamil Nadu. Their role in protecting the last great Hindu kingdom of India was significant. Some of the prominent commanders who achieved fame were:

* Pemmasani Thimma Nayudu was the commander of Vijayanagar army which fought and won the battle of Gulbarga (Kalubarige) in 1422 CE. The grateful king Devaraya II made him the governor of Gandikota (Cuddapah). Thimma Nayudu constructed a large number of temples and tanks in the Rayalaseema region. The Gandikota Kammas kept the Muslim rulers like the Bahmanis at bay and protected Telugu land for a long time to come.

* Pemmasani Ramalinga Nayudu was the most favourite and chief commander of Sri Krishna Deva Raya. The battle of Raichur was won by Ramalinga during which thousands of Kamma warriors perished. The exploits of Ramalinga were extolled by many poets Portuguese historian Nuniz referred Ramalinga as ‘Camanayque’ in his writings. (Pemmasani Nayaks).

* Another illustrious clan which won laurels in Vijayanagar Empire were the Ravella Nayaks. Many commanders of this clan fought and protected the honour of Telugu country.

* Kammas controlled large swathes of southern and northern Tamil Nadu for several years under the title of Nayacker or Naicker or Naidu, which was a legacy of the Vijayanagar Empire.

Martial clans: Many clans figure prominently in the battles during Vijayanagar era and in the subsequent years. Some of these clans include Eruva, Matcha, Konda, Kodali, Sammeta, Choda/Chode, Dasari, Alamandala, Adapa, Suryadevara, Nadendla, Veliseti, Sakhamuri etc.,
Golkonda period

Vijayanagar kingdom underwent very difficult times after the battle of Tallikota in 1565. Pemmasani Nayaks, Ravella Nayaks and Sayapaneni Nayaks steadfastly helped the Araviti kings in keeping the Muslims at bay. It took another 90 years to consolidate the Muslim power in Andhra country with the capture of Gandikota in 1652. Kamma nayaks migrated in large numbers to the Tamil region. During the Golkonda period, the Sayapaneni Nayaks (1626-1802) ruled Dupadu region as vassals of the Golkonda sultans. Gangappa Nayudu, Venkatadri Nayudu and Rangappa Nayudu were famous among them. Ibrahim Qutb Shah captured Kondavidu in 1579. Rayarao, his Maratha commander, appointed Deshmukhs and Chowdarys in 497 villages. Some of the prominent Chowdarys belonged to Dasari, Nallamotu, Kosaraju, Paruchuri, Ravella and Vasireddy clans. The usage of the name ‘Chowdary’ in coastal Andhra commenced at this time.

Vasireddy Sadasiva Nayudu ruled Nandigama paragana from 1550 to 1581. He was granted the paragana by Ibrahim Qutb Shah of Golkonda. Chinapadmanabha Nayudu got a grant of 500 villages from Abul Hassan Tanisha in 1685. He built a fort at Chintapalli and ruled it until 1710 CE. His successors ruled until 1760. During this period the French and the British were trying to gain control of the Andhra country. Jaggayya ruled Chintapalli from 1763 onwards. He was killed by French troops sent by Basalat Jung, brother of the Golkonda Nawab in 1771. Jaggayya’s wife Acchamma committed Sati. Jaggayya’s son Venkatadri recovered Chintapalii in 1777 and earned fame as a benevolent and illustrious ruler (Vasireddy Venkatadri Nayudu and Vasireddy Clan). The British gained control of Andhra by 1788 from Golkonda Nawabs. Another Kamma principality during Golkonda period was Devarakota with Challapalli as its capital. Its ruler, Yarlagadda Guruvarayudu was subdued by Abdullah Qutb Shah in 1576. His successors ruled as vassals of Golkonda till the French took over in 1751 and later the British in 1765.
British period

By the end of 18th century the British East India Company had consolidated their rule in Andhra. The armies of Zamindars and Deshmukhs were dismantled and only the power of tax collection was left intact. The well-known Kamma Zamindaris under the British rule were Muktyala, Chintapalli (Amaravati), Challapalli, Devarakota, Kapileswarapuram etc. These Zamindars encouraged modern education by establishing many schools and libraries.
Modern history

After the decline of major kingdoms, Kammas controlled large fertile areas in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu, as a legacy of their martial past. The British recognized their prominence and made them village heads(Talari) also known as Chowdary to collect taxes. The association of Kammas with the land and agriculture is legendary. The martial prowess of Kammas was put to good use to tame the lands in modern times. There are many proverbs in Telugu language which speak of the Kammas’ adeptness in agriculture and their emotional attachment to the soil. English historians like Edgar Thurston and noted agricultural scientists like M. S. Randhawa eulogized the spirit of Kamma farmers

Construction of dams and barrages and establishment of an irrigation system in Godavari and Krishna river deltas by Sir Arthur Cotton was a great boon to the Kamma farmers. Availability of water and the natural propensity for hard work made the Kammas wealthy and prosperous. The money was put to good use by establishing numerous schools and libraries and encouraging their children to take up modern education. Among the non-Brahmin communities, Kammas were one of the first to take to education in large numbers. Over a period of 10 years, in Guntur District alone, 130 High schools and hostels were established by their initiative. The zamindars of Challapalli and Kapileswarapuram founded many schools and libraries. In the modern times, the pace of the growth in wealth accelerated due to their enterprise and notable achievements in business, real estate, farming, arts and movie industry, education, medicine, engineering, media and high technology.

The Kammas of Tamil Nadu have also excelled in the cultivation of black cotton soils and later diversified into various industrial enterprises, particularly in Coimbatore.

In the recent past, enterprising farmers migrated to other regions such as Nizamabad, Raichur and Bellary (Karnataka), Raipur (Chattisgarh) and Sambalpur (Orissa) and bought lands. In the past fifty years, the enterprise of the Kammas has profoundly influenced every aspect of social, economic and political life of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and the country in general. The contribution of Kammas to the economy of the state of Andhra Pradesh is significant.

With the power of knowledge and education, a large number of Kammas have migrated to the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand etc. This migration is continuing unabated. Kammas have truly become Global citizens.

The Kamma community are found in significant numbers in Khammam, Guntur, Krishna, Prakasam and West Godavari districts of Coastal region and in large numbers in Chittoor, Khammam, Hyderabad, Rangareddy, Anantapur, East Godavari, Nizamabad and Visakhapatnam districts in Andhra Pradesh; Bellary and Bangalore districts of Karnataka; and Chennai, Coimbatore, Tirunelveli, Tuticorin, Kovilpatti, Madurai, Virudhunagar, Theni, Karur, Dindigal, North Arcot and South Arcot districts of Tamil Nadu.

Some of the prominenr Kamma Zamindaris in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu are:

* Challapalli - Yarlagadda Clan
* Chintapalli/Amaravati - Vasireddy clan
* Kapileswarapuram - Balusu clan
* Kodamanchili - Manne clan
* Muktyala - Vasireddy clan
* Melkalathuru (Old Arcot Dt) - Bollineni/Bollini Clan
* Kurivikulam (Tirunelveli Dt) – Pemmasani clan
* Ilavarasanandanan (Tirunelveli Dt) – Ravella clan
* Neikarapatti (Dindugal Dt) – Pemmasani clan


Several Kamma surnames end with 'neni' denote the descent from an ancestor having the title 'Nayakudu/Nayudu/Nayuni. For example, persons with surname 'Veeramachaneni' are descendants of 'Veeramacha Nayudu'. Other surnames indicate the villages to which the persons originally belonged to. Kammas use different titles in different regions such as Chowdary, Naidu, Rao and Naicker. In Tamil Nadu and Southern Andhra Pradesh, Naidu is commonly used. Naicker title is added in the areas south of Coimbatore district. However, Telugu speaking Velama, Balija, Gavara and other communities also use the titles Naidu and Naicker in Coastal Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu respectively.

There are a few divisions among Kammas, although these have largely disappeared for all practical purposes. The divisions are:

1. Pedda Kamma (Descendants of Nayaks and ruling clans, belonging to many surnames.)
2. Chinna Kamma (Majority of the Kammas).
3. Kota Kamma (Descendants of Dharanikota kings with surnames Kota, Sagineni etc.).
4. Gampa Kamma (Descendants of Gandikota Nayaks who migrated to coastal districts after the downfall of Gandikota).
5. Gandikota Kamma (Descendants of Gandikota Nayaks who migrated to Tamil Nadu).


While most of the Kammas are Hindus there were conversions to other religions/schools of thought such as Christianity, Atheism, Buddhism and Islam.

Kammas are politically very active, especially in the Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions of Andhra Pradesh and parts of Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. During the twentieth century a number of leaders like Prof N.G. Ranga, Kotha Raghuramaiah, Gottipati Brahmaiah, Moturu Hanumantha Rao and Kalluri Chandramouli took prominent roles in the national freedom movement. Several Kammas were also attracted to leftist ideals and joined the Communist Party. It was a strong political force in the state until the mid sixties. Many wealthy Kammas willingly relinquished their lands and actively worked for the land distribution reforms. This helped many landless individuals attain middle class status and brought about greater economic development of the state as a whole rather than to just one particular community. We are witnessing the benefits of this sacrifice now in the state as Andhra Pradesh has developed into an economic hub. However, their affinity towards the Communist party in the early days led them to lose political clout along with the diminished influence of the Communist party throughout the world.

During the 1980s, they again played a key role in state and national politics with the inception of the Telugu Desam Party. Nara Chandrababu Naidu gave a progressive direction to Andhra Pradesh and won global recognition to the Telugu language and the state of Andhra Pradesh.

The Kammas are at a crossroads, today. A large number of families has already transplanted themselves to urban centres in India and abroad. Their enterprising nature and hard work created a class of ‘neo-rich’. In villages, land reforms forced many Kammas to give away their lands to the government. Subsequently, land holdings got fragmented and presently most of the Kammas living in rural areas are small farmers. The vagaries of weather and a lack of good "support prices" made agriculture unremunerative. Loss of interest in agriculture and the lure of urban environment have only exacerbated the situation. There are impending signs of a gulf developing between the rural and urban Kammas. Development of collective and corporate agriculture in the near future may obviate this possible scenario.


R.Subburaj said...

You have got it all wrong. Kammas derive their name from the region Kamma in andhra, from where they originated. Infact, they are not even naidus. It was the balija naidus who ruled over tamil nadu.Kindly refer to balija charitram. obviously the Vijayanagar emperors also owed their origin to balija caste.

pardhasaradhi said...

hai what u wrote is all wrong actually the kamma caste came from nagamma before that kamma and kapu are one if u need a reference find out near vijayawada there is a caste kammakapu dont creat ur own stories kammas have no history that only starts from ntr thats it ,and be sure the chaudhary is a sub title not a caste created by ur self in bihar chaudhary are schedule caste .prataprudhra,vijayanagara rayas ,kakithayas are all yadava kings if u want check the references

vinesh said...

nice posting

Madurai Hotels

subash said...

hello mr.subburaj & mr.parthasaradhi,
i think u belong to someother naidu castes..thats why u are saying something against kammas...actually kammas originated from the present uttarpradesh and haryana states where most of the RENUGA DEVI-PARASURAMA'S STORIES HAD HAPPENED...u can refer the PURANAS where kammas' origin s clearly given that they are the descendents of PARASURAMA. wat MR.PARTHASARADHI said is balijas only ruled had ruled tamil nadu... ofcoure the balijas had ruled TN but only the family of THIRUMALA NAIKHER of MADHURAI belong to balija... except their family all other naidu kings who ruled various parts of tamilnadu are kammas only...
VIJAYANAGAR emperors doesn't belong to balija community... only their chief ministries and millitants belong to balija...for ex:great grandfather of THIRUMALA NAIKHER of madhurai was one of the misters in vijayanagar empire who was sent to madurai to check and to regulate the dharmas over there.. but in few days he had started ruling that province..this is the actual storey...as u read balija charitram, go and read the kamma charitram also.. only then u can speak about this.. without knowing anything dont speak something from ur brain... speakout from ur heart...ok?!.
Mr.PARTHASARADHI., I hav seen the list of backward castes in bihar... there is no such specification of chowdhary under sc caste... u know there are different chowdarys in al over india.. al are not same.. even there r chaudhurys in gujarat... but they r diffrent.. hare v r talkin only about telugu chowdhars..k.. not about others.. if u need anymore clarifications just checkout the spellings.....
my research paper prooves al the above statements

This comment has been removed by the author.



anirudh said...

i dont know why telugu kamma people do such over action regarding their caste..though they r good regarding their characters some people assume themselves as if they are very high caste people as if they are more than the kshatriyas or the brahmins.guys this is not to criticise u,but just to let u know what people think of u is "these people are though good y do they act like that at times though dont have a good history like the kings.." dont think that we people are feeling jealous of u people.have ur feelings upto a limit but please dont cross it.its a bad part of u in the views of other people..but u people think its some royality..im sorry if i've hurt u..but i just wanted to let u know the views on the kamma people at present days.thats it..

Venkat said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
Venkat Sharma said...

I completely agree with Subbaraj, Pardha. Becoz my grand father used to say that most of the castes like Kamma & Reddy and so many castes came Kapu(Balija). In kings time Kapu caste divided into many subcastes(based on Agriculture, SOlidiers, Nayaks, Merchent). Kamma is also came thing. NTR knows about it becoz of that only he used to more respect to Kapu's. But this genaration doesn't know anything. with half knowledge they will orgue like big stupids. In this communitiy war,big lose is for Brahmins only. Becoz we are passing our traditional values Genarations together. Goverment/other castes will say Brahmins is big caste. But 80percent of the people in brahmins now became very poor and they become as Beggers now. You guys are fighting for community. Becoz castes and reservations lot of guys struggling a lot. Try do something for removing reservations in Goverment. We have to fight for removing the reservations atleast in jobs.

Saravanan said...

Dear all,
Before entering into discussions, pls let me excuse if it hurts any ones.
Applying general logic
Eg.If a naidu person x origin of Andra pradesh during rein of naidu king in madurai reaches madurai
Mr x settles well in madurai, he gives a birth to a kid in madurai.
In case due to any political disturbances or end of naidu dynasity in madurai, Mr x along with his family may or may not be affected,
If Mr x is already settled.
his sucessor get married and from then onwards he says i am a madurai wala his sucessor also tend to say the same thing.
His mother tongue will be telugu, but the social language will be tamil and they will be given some collocial name in tamil just like naicker

Pls try to under one thing new community is created on decade by decade basis. along with politics, culture, geographical things,occupation etc.,
There is no history to demonstrate which is true and not true.

If you make Mannar tirumalai naicker as balinja hero, then kamma will dig into history and create a new hero.
End of the day what is benefited out of this heroism.

vinay said...

Brother these type of arguments are waste.one thing i would like to say,the community of kamma they are legends in agriculture,just you have take an inspiration.How they developed in the society with rapid force.criticism is very easy to deliver words.. kamma origin is born B.C.10th decade in sila sasan at national&geographical science museum at Delhi. if u want details for anyone,i will give full details for A.P

anirudh said...

guys what all u say..

the kshatriyas(rajus or kings) are always and will be on the top according to the caste system then the brahmins and next comes all these small ones.

karthik nayudu said...

Guys many of AP people knows kamma caste b'coz of NTR. I really don't know how many kamma's know that NTR's mother basava tarakam is a Brahmin; only because of that he has got "vak Spasthata" which led to origin of new caste called kamma or Chowdary/Choudhury???

Kamma's compare themselves with Kakateeya's etc they really want to show that they have origin, history etc for remaining castes there is no need to prove their origin.

Cooooollllllllll, Enjoy and support Anna Hajare who is fighting against corruption as a kapu/Protector t is our responsibility to save our country it's time to repeat the history and show what kapu's are??/.As per historical data hazare clain belongs to kapu community.

NGUGIE said...

Kammas are shudras.How are kammas related to Brahman Parasurama?No other Purana except Kurma Purana written by kamma writer mentioned kamma people.It would be very good if Mr.Subhas had given evidence from ancient literature and inscriptions to support his claims.

Marutheeraja said...

Rajus ( the Telugu Kshatriyas) are direct descendants of these kings.

a) PARICHEDIS ( Guhila , Vishnukundin Clan ) - Their gothra 'Vashishta'
b) KOTA/ DHARANI KOTA ( Kubja Vishnuvardhana , Eastern Chalukya Clan) - 'Dhananjaya' gothra
c) KAKATI/KAKATIYA ( Karikala Chola, Kakati Prola Raju Clan) - Their gothra 'Kashyapa'
d) VARNATA ( Aditya chola, Varnata Rajendra Chola Clan) - Their gothra ' Kaundinyasa'

Information available on this topic in Telugu book " Andhra Samsthanamulu - Sahitya Poshana" published by Andhra University. This book was published form of Ph.D thesis submitted by Dr. Thoomati Donappa ( Former Vice Chancellor of Telugu University).
Another Telugu language book ' KSHATRIYANVAYAMANJUSHA' by Sri. Duvvuri Jagannadha Sharma

" The Kotas of Dhanamjaya Gothra appear as the second among the four important branches of Kshatriyas in Telugu land"
- page 174 'History of Andhra Country' 1000AD-1500AD by Yashoda Devi.Book published by Gyan Publishing
KOTA( DHARANIKOTA) Kings (' Dhananjaya' is their Gothram/ Gothra )
Eastern Chalukya King Kubja Vishnuvardhana was also mentioned in this clan.King Raja Raja Narendra who ruled from Rajahmundry), Kondapadumati Kings belong to this Clan only. Malaya Chiefs (1015 A.D. to 1220 A.D) who ruled from Kovvur.Nidadavolu belt of present day west Godavari district also belong to this clan.
King Hariseema Krishna who ruled from Dharanikota ( Amaravathi) belong to this Race. King Dantuluri GannaBhoopaludu who patronized Telugu poet Srinadhudu/ Srinadha.
Ganna Bhupala Dantuluri was ruling a tract about Dharanikota about 1400 A.D. was of Kota lineage. Famous Telugu poet Srinatha wrote 'Dhananjaya Vijayam' and dedicated it to Dantuluri Gannabhupala. Mahamuni Kavya Kanta Ganapathi Shastry mentioned in his book that King Dantuluri Gannabhupala gave away his daughter Surambika to Ana Vema Reddy who ruled Addanki. This was mentioned to be the first marriage between Kshatriya and reddy communities"
(Source worldlibrary. org)
Tuni ( East Godavari) 'Dantuluri' Zamindars, Toyyeru 'Nallaparaju' zamindars belong to this Gothra only.

Chandra Punati said...

Verma in Kerala kings same surname some parts sc

Chandra Punati said...

Kammaa are khatriyas who renounced the thread

laptopsrinivas said...

Lot of research I appreciate the work.
We kammas always are positive minded and feel proud our self to be the leaders in the work or industry we are in.

anonymous said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
anonymous said...

@karthik YOU SON OF A BITCH ! AMADA KOJJA ! Basava tarakam is not NTR's mother, she is NTR's first wife she is a kamma too. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/N._T._Rama_Rao . Think you are a balija naidu. FYI it is Telugu Desam Party(Established by NTR) that gave priority to your caste in politics, and also in reservation.

Kammas are idiots bcz they are kind enough to excuse other caste people.

Aradhya Chowdary said...

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Unknown said...

I think knowing history is good but we should not bias.acheive great things make your family,friends and country proud.the achievements of our ancestors are not our own,the mistakes of our ancestors are not our own.it is theirs and theirs alone.they struggled and strived for whatever they believed in. their beliefs are their own.we cannot walk their path we can only walk ours.so let's believe in ourselves and learn from their victories and mistakes.that is the only way we can honor their memories.
-Gadde Krishna chaitanya

Venkateswarlu Chennuboina said...

The kamma caste has no links to North India, Jainism and Buddhism.The caste has been formed at Hampi regions from people migrated from kammanadu to Kannada land during Vijayanagara period.Vijayanagara Kings were not balijas.They were Yadavas as per their inscriptions. See the below given inscription;
page 179

No 38.

Nanjangud Taluk

1. Svasti sri vijayabhyudaya Salivahana saka 5 varusha
2.1434 sandu ......srimukha samvatsarada Phalguna ba svasti jitam
3.bhagavata gata ghana gaganabhena sthira simhasanarudha sri nahaajadhiraja ra
4.ja parameswara sriman mahamedini ,miseyaraganda kathari saluva sriman dekshina samu
5.dradhipati Narasimha varma maharajadhiraja tut putra pituranvagata YADAVA kulamba
6.ra dyumani samyuktva chudamini sakala vanahi brind sandoha (santarpana)paranarisahodara
7.sauchavira(sarvavira) parakramadhara sakala desadhisvara mani makuta charanaravinda kathari
8.trinetra srimat krishnavarma maharajadhiraja prudhvirajyam geyinottiralu dakshina de
9.sadhi vijayavagi dittayisida vira Krishnarayara nyupadim srimanu mahapradhanam Ya
10.ju sakheya khandava gotrada Apastambha sutrada srimanu Saluva Timmarasaru dakshina
11.varanesi Gajaranyakshetra Rajaraja purvada Talakadali sri mahadevadevo
12. ttama kirti Narayana devarige thayurasthalada kavahaliyolaganegado ........

Translation -----------

Be it well.In the victorious and prospering Salivahan era 1434 year s having expired while the year srimukha was current, on the 5th lunar day of the dark half of Phalghuna.Be it well.Victory to the Adorable(padmanabha)who resembles the sky free from clouds.While illustrious Krishnavarma maharajadhiraja seated on the stable throne, the prosperous king of kings, lord of kings, champion over those who wear mustaches in the great earth, kathari saluva(dagger and kite ) , eruler over the southern sea,Narasimha mahadhiraja's son ; asun to the fragment that is the Yadava race of which he is a lineal descendant: :..............................Under the orders of vira Krishnaraya, whole he was pleased to go on a victorious expedition to the to the south:the illustrious mahapradhana(chief minister) Saluva Timmarasa of yaju sakha khandava gotra and apastambha sutra made agift to the best of the gods kirtinarayana devaru of Talakadu which is Rajarajpuram...............

Note ----

-It belongs to the reign of Vijayanara king Krishnaraya and is dated S.1434srimuka sam.phal.ba.5. This data correspond to March 15, A.D. 1514; .........The pecular feature in the historical portion of this record the king Krishnaraya is here styled krishnavarma maharajadhiraj as is also the case in two other inscriptions of th same Talu.(E.C.-III Nanjanguda 190 and 195 of 1512 and 1513 A.D)............

Annual Report of the Mysore Archaeological Department for the 1930
University of Mysore ,

Unknown said...

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