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Tuesday, October 23, 2007

Great Kamma Rulers - Musunuru Nayaka Dynasty

Introduction

The conquest of South India (Deccan) by the Delhi Sultanate started in 1296 when Alauddin Khilji, the son-in-Law and commander of the Sultan Jalaluddin raided and plundered Devagiri (Maharashtra). Khilji subsequently murdered the Sultan and took over the reins of the Sultanate. The glory and wealth of the Kakatiya kingdom attracted the attention of Khilji. The first foray into the Telugu kingdom was made in 1303 by the Sultan’s armies led by Malik Fakruddin. It was a disaster because of the valiant resistance of the Kakatiya army in the battle at Upparapalli (Karim Nagar District). The second attempt was made in 1309 by Malik Kafur who managed to capture Siripur and Hanumakonda forts. Warangal fort was taken after a prolonged seize. Malik Kafur indulged in murder and mayhem around the fort which prompted King Prataparudra to make a pact and offer an enormous amount of tribute. Prataparudra asserted his independence in 1320 when there was a change of power in Delhi. The Khilji dynasty ended and Ghiasuddin Tughlak ascended the Delhi throne. Tughlak sent his son Ulugh Khan in 1323 to defeat the defiant Kakatiya king. Ulugh Khan’s raid was repulsed but he returned in a month with a larger and determined army. The unprepared and battle-weary army of Warangal was finally defeated. The loot, plunder and destruction of Warangal continued for months. Loads of gold, diamonds, pearls and ivory were carried away to Delhi on elephants and camels. The Kohinoor diamond was part of the booty. The large population was forcibly converted to Islam, women were raped and molested and mosques were erected over the demolished temples. The vandalism and cruel atrocities of the Muslim army demoralized the common people who were unfamiliar with the methods adopted by the invaders. King Prataparudra was taken prisoner. He committed suicide by drowning himself in the river Narmada while being taken to Delhi.

The Valiant Cousins

King Prataparudra’s Kakatiya kingdom was ably served by seventy five chieftains called Nayaks. The Nayaks who belonged to various agrarian castes such as Velama, Kamma, Reddy, Balija, Teliga, Boya etc., were divided by mutual jealousy and rivalry. However, the Nayak chiefs valiantly fought during the hour of the need. Many Nayak chiefs were captured, converted to Islam and sent back as governors. These included Harihara and Bukka who later established Vijayanagar kingdom at Hampi. Some like Minister Jagannatha Pandit occupied exalted positions in Delhi Durbar.

The year 1323 was a turning point in the history of Telugu country. After the fall of Warangal, Muslim armies marched forward and captured Kondapalli, Kondaveedu, Rajahmundry, Nidadavole, Nellore, and Kolanuveedu forts. The conquest spread up to Madhura (Tamil Nadu) and Malabar (Kerala). Hoyasala and Kampili kingdoms (Karnataka) also became part of the Sultanate. The conquest of South India was complete. Ulugh Khan ascended the Delhi throne under the name Mohammed Bin Tughlak.

The following years witnessed all round misery, destruction, oppression, forcible conversion, pillage and plunder. The Telugu country was in great turmoil and ferment. Seeds of revolution were sown. Two patriotic souls, Annaya Mantri and Kolani Rudradeva exhorted and united the remaining Nayak chieftains. They instilled a sense of unity and sacrifice to protect the Telugu country and Hindu Dharma.

A dynamic and valiant Kamma Nayak hailing from Vegi (West Godavari District) was chosen as their leader. He is Musunuri Prolayanayak (Prolaaneedu), a brave and battle-hardy warrior. Prolaya was the son of Pochinayak who had three brothers namely Devanayak, Kammanayak and Rajanayak. The son of Devanayak was Kaapayanayak (Kaapaneedu) who was the right hand man of Prolaya. he other cousins of Prolaya also ably assisted him in his endeavours. Prolaya galvanized all the Nayaks and their progeny and united them with his organizational skills. The Nayaks set aside their differences and rallied under the leadership of Prolaya to safeguard the Hindu Dharma.

Triumph and Freedom

Battles were fought at all levels at a great cost and independence was achieved after many a sacrifice. Nayak armies liberated Warangal by 1326 and drove away Muslims from Telugu country. Many of the inscriptions glorified the victories of Prolaya and the statecraft he practiced. The cousins strengthened the forts, rebuilt the temples, restored village grants to Brahmins and encouraged arts and literature. Ageing Prolaya retired to Rekapalli fort (East Godavari district) after vesting the power in younger and more dynamic Kaapaya.

Inspired by the victories of the cousins, other kingdoms like Kampili, Hoyasala, Dwarasamudram and Araveedu asserted independence. Historical evidence showed that the Nayaks actively assisted other kings to achieve freedom from the Sultanate. Harihara and Bukka who were captured at Warangal by Ulugh Khan and converted to Islam were sent by the Sultan to suppress the rebellion of Hoyasala king. The brothers, however, switched sides and went on to establish Vijayanagar Kingdom. Jalaluddin Hassan, the governor of Madhura also declared his independence from the Sultan. This was the last straw on the Camel’s back. The Sultan personally led a huge army southward. He reached Warangal but had to make a hasty retreat. He appointed Malik Maqbool as the Governor and left. Historians opined that a great epidemic prevalent during that time and the formidable resistance of the Nayaks were the reasons for the retreat. Kaapaya wanted to utilize the opportunity to liberate the whole of Telangana including Bidar. He sought the help of Hoyasala king in this endeavour. The Nayaks fought in unison and Kaapaya succeeded in capturing the Warangal fort and l iberating Telangana from the invaders. The flag of Andhradesa was unfurled on the Warangal fort. Kaapaya was given the titles “Andhradesaadheeswara” and “Andhrasuratraana”.

Kaapaya was always wary of attacks by the Sultan’s armies from the north. He strengthened the forts and replenished the army. However, a new and bigger threat loomed on the horizon. A revolt by a group of Muslim nobles against Muhammed Bin Tughlaq that began in Devagiri in 1345 culminated in the foundation of the Bahmani kingdom by Hasan Gangu. He assumed the name Alauddin Bahman Shah and moved his capital to the more centrally located Gulbarga in 1347. Alauddin was an ambitious man and his goal was to conquer the whole of Dakshinapatha (Deccan).

The Decline

The unity fostered by the Musunuri cousins among the Nayaks started showing strains fuelled by envy. Recherla Nayaks led by Singama raided Addanki which was under the control of Vema Reddy. Vema Reddy sought the help of Kaapaya who intervened and forced Singama to accept the confederation. ingama was unable to reconcile to this act. Kaapaya also helped Bahmani king in good faith to ward off Delhi Sultan’s attack. He would soon find Alauddin turn ungrateful.

Singama and his sons induced Alauddin to interfere in the affairs of Warangal. Bahmani king was too eager to oblige. Telangana was invaded in 1350. Kaapaya’s army fought an unexpected but heroic battle in vain. He concluded a treaty with Alauddin and surrendered Kaulas fort. This was the first setback to the unified Telugu kingdom.

The death of Mohammed Bin Tughlak in 1351 emboldened Alauddin to achieve his goal of expanding his kingdom in Deccan. He marched into Telangana in 1355 with greatly enlarged army and captured many forts including Bhuvanagiri. Alauddin spent a year in Telangana and engaged in another round of destruction and plunder. He reurned to Gulbarga and died in 1359. Mohammed Shah succeeded Alauddin. At this time Kaapaya sent his brave and boisterous son Vinayaka Deva to liberate Kaulas and Bhuvanagiri from Bahmanis. The Vijayanagar king Bukkaraya actively assisted him in this campaign. Vinayaka Deva had initial successes but was eventually defeated, captured and killed in a cruel and ghastly manner.

Kaapaya was disheartened but his goal was to destroy Bahmani kingdom. Along with Bukka Raya he planned a great expedition against Bahmanis. Mohammed Shah got enraged and invaded Telangana again. Golconda and Warangal were subdued. Bukka Raya died during this time. Lack of support from Vijayanagar and non-cooperation from Devarakonda and Rachakonda Nayaks also contributed to the fall of Warangal. Historians feel that Rachakonda Nayaks surreptitiously helped Bahmani king. Mohemmed Shah spent two years in Telangana and wiped out all remnants of Hindu temples. Golconda was chosen as the border between Bahmani and Warangal kingdoms in 1365. Kaapaya had to present the turquoise throne and large amounts of tribute to Mohammed Shah. This was the major setback and turning point in the history of Andhradesa.

Singamanayak of Recherla and his sons took advantage of the situation and declared independence. They marched against Warangal ruled by a weakened and disheartened Kaapaya. The treasury was empty and the army was war-weary. Kaapaya met Singama’s army at Bhimavaram and died a martyr’s death. Thus ended the short but glorious reign (1326-1370) of Musunuri clan which united the Telugu country, its people and its warriors, and protected Hindu Dharma. The valour, dedication and undaunted spirit of sacrifice of Musunuri Nayaks are unparalleled in the history of Telugu land.

After the martyrdom of Kaapaya Nayak there was an en masse migration of Nayaks and their progeny to the Vijayanagar Kingdom. These Nayaks formed the bulwark of Vijayanagar Empire and bravely defended South India and Hindu dharma for the next two centuries. Relatives of Kaapaya such as Mummadi and Anavota briefly controlled small areas in the coastal districts which were eventually absorbed into Reddy kingdom. Nayaks who were unwilling to surrender and serve as vassals were pursued and killed by the Muslim armies.

5 comments:

Prasadaz said...

Good to know that there is a site like this.A.K.N.PRASAD

NGUGIE said...

Can show any inscription or literary evidence of Musunuri nayakas time stating Musunuri nayakas were kammas?

SAI KRISHNA said...

Any proofs for this?

meto mayo said...



شركة نقل اثاث بالدمام تقدم خدمات لا حصر لها رائعة لتلبية طلبات العميل وتحقيق كل ما يتمناه في خدمات نقل العفش بالدمام فثقتنا في اعمالنا جيدة قد وضعتنا كخبراء داخل مجال نقل الاثاث حيث يتم التشاور مع حقيبة مختلطة من داخل شركة نقل عفش بالدمام عن اختيار المواد الخاصة بك والمواد أو الأشياء من على عتبة منزلك لتصل جميع ممتلكاتك بأمان إلى المكان الذي ترغب فيه
شركة نقل الاثاث بجدة لدينا ميل الي التفكير في إعطاء نوع من الإدارات لدي شركة نقل اثاث بجدة التي تطوير انفسهم ومتابعة كل ما هو حديث في عالم نقل الاثاث المنزلي والبحث عن الطرق الحديثة التي تؤدي الي انجاز المهمة بكل سهولة والتي تترك نجاح باهر يمكن أن يساعد على ارضاء نفسية عملائنا.لدينا الميل في شركة نقل عفش بجدة إلى أن يشار جيدا إلى السيارات الحديثة التي نمتلكها علي انها ذات كفاءة عالية كما نمتلك عمال تنزيل علي اعلي مستوي كما يوجد لدينا في خدمة نقل عفش بجدة
فنين فك وتركيب لديهم القدرة الكافية علي التعامل مع جميع انواع الاثاث كما اننا نمتاز باننا نمتلك المغلفون الذين يقومون بتغليف جميع الاثاث المنزلي للحفاظ عليه من الغبار والتكسير كل هذه العوامل التي تقدمها شركتنا نتيجة للمعيار والتنمية والعقل
شركة نقل الاثاث بمكةتكتشف مجموعتنا الخاصة في فريق شركة نقل اثاث بمكة في خدمتك في أي وقت من اليوم وأنها مستعدة للبقاء طيلة الوقت لمساعدتك في نقل اثاث منزلك سواء كان بيتك كبير او صغير قهذه ميزة الشركات الكبيرة التي تقدم الخدمات المتميزة فنحن نأمل دائما لإعطاء أفضل انطباع من تجربة نقل ممتازة. يتم اتخاذ كل خطوة الرعاية من قبل فريقنا والتعامل مع أفضل طريقة ممكنة. لدينا في شركة نقل عفش بمكة المتخصصين هم أيضا على استعداد للرد على الاحتياجات الفورية لعملائنا الكرام.
مستودعات تخزين الاثاث بالرياضالتعبئة والتغليف واحدة من أكثر المعترف بها في خدمة نقل وتخزين الاثاث بالرياض فخدمة التعبئة والتغليف لدي شركة تخزين اثاث بالرياض يمكن أن يحصل على انتباه الكثير من العملاء وهذا يرجع ببساطة إلى أننا نواصل الوفاء بطلباتهم. كما قمنا بتطوير وواصلنا تقديم أفضل الخدمات التي تحافظ علي ممتلكتهم في مستودعات تخزين العفش التي تكمل في الحفاظ علي الأموال المدفوعة في ممتلكتهم لحين الرجوع اليها مرة أخري
شركة تخزين اثاث
الشيء المثير للإعجاب بالنسبة الينا في شركة تخزين عفش بالرياض هو أن فريقنا على استعداد لخدمتك في أي وقت من اليوم لطالما كنت بحاجة لدينا فنحن نواصل إقناع عملائنا التأمين علي جميع العناصر الخاصة بهم. هذا هو السبب الرئيسي لماذا بقينا على أنها




المتوكل على الله said...

افضل شركة رش مبيدات بالرياض
القيام بأعمال رش المبيدات أو رش الحشرات إنما خدماتنا ما بعد الرش أيضاً في متابعة تأثير عمليه الرش وقياس فترات الرش لتقديم خطة شاملة لعملية رش تضمن القضاء التام علي الحشرات المنزلية.
رش مبيدات بالرياضlevel
شركة رش دفان بالرياض
شركة مكافحة فئران بالرياض
شركة مكافحة النمل الاسود بالرياض
شركة مكافحة الصراصير بالرياض
شركة مكافحة الحمام بالرياض
شركة رش مبيدات بالخرج