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Tuesday, October 23, 2007

Great Kamma Rulers - Kakatiya Dynasty

The Kakatiya Dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that ruled parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083 to 1323. They were one of the great Telugu kingdoms that lasted for centuries.

Origins

During the 10th and 11th centuries the Vengi region came under the rule of Kalyani chalukyas and the Chola at differnt times. The time period between 1000CE and 1118CE saw repeated wars between these two powerful kingdoms for control of Vengi. The Kakatiya dynasty ruled as Chalukya feudatories over parts of present day Andhra Pradesh during this time. After the death of Chalukya Vikramaditya VI in 1126AD, The 12th and the 13th centuries saw the emergence of the Kakatiyas. They were at first the feudatories of the Western Chalukyas of Kalyana, ruling over a small territory near Warangal. A ruler of this dynasty, Prola II, who ruled from A.D.1110 to 1158, extended his sway to the south and declared his independence. His successor Rudra (A.D.1158--1195) pushed the kingdom to the north up to the Godavari delta. He built a fort at Warangal to serve as a second capital and faced the invasions of the Yadavas of Devagiri. The next ruler Mahadeva extended the kingdom to the coastal area. In A.D.1199, Ganapati succeeded him. He was the greatest of the Kakatiyas and the first after the Satavahanas to bring the entire Telugu area under one rule. He put an end to the rule of the Velanati Cholas in A.D.1210. He forced the Telugu Cholas of Vikramasimhapura to accept his suzerainty. He established order in his vast dominion and encouraged trade.

As Ganapati Deva had no sons, his daughter Rudramba succeeded him in A.D.1262 and carried on the administration. Some generals, who did not like to be ruled by her, rebelled. She could, however, suppress the internal rebellions and external invasions with the help of loyal subordinates. The Cholas and the Yadavas suffered such set backs at her hands that they did not think of troubling her for the rest of her rule.

Prataparudra succeeded his grandmother Rudramba in A.D.1295 and ruled till A.D.1323. He pushed the western border of his kingdom up to Raichur. He introduced many administrative reforms. He divided the kingdom into 75 Nayakships, which was later adopted and developed by the Rayas of Vijayanagara. In his time the territory constituting Andhra Pradesh had the first experience of a Muslim invasion. In A.D.1303, the Delhi Sultan Ala-ud-din Khilji sent an army to plunder the kingdom. But Prataparudra defeated them at Upparapalli in Karimnagar district. In A.D. 1310, when another army under Malik Kafur invaded Warangal, Prataparudra yielded and agreed to pay a large tribute. In A.D.1318, when Ala-ud-din Khilji died, Prataparudra withheld the tribute. It provoked another invasion of the Muslims. In A.D.1321, Ghiaz-ud-din Tughlaq sent a large army under Ulugh Khan to conquer the Telugu country then called Tilling. He laid siege to Warangal, but owing to internal dissensions he called off the siege and returned to Delhi. Within a short period, he came back with a much bigger army. In spite of unpreparedness, Prataparudra fought bravely. For want of supplies, he surrendered to the enemy who sent him to Delhi as a prisoner, and he died on the way. Thus ended the Kakatiya rule, opening the gates of the Telugu land to anarchy and confusion yielding place to an alien ruler.

The Kakatiya period was rightly called the brightest period of the Telugu history. The entire Telugu speaking area was under the kings who spoke Telugu and encouraged Telugu. They established order throughout the strife torn land and the forts built by them played a dominant role in the defence of the realm. Anumakonda and Gandikota among the 'giridurgas', Kandur and Narayanavanam among the 'vanadurgas', Divi and Kolanu among the 'jaladurgas', and Warangal and Dharanikota among the 'sthaladurgas' were reckoned as the most famous strongholds in the Kakatiya period. The administration of the kingdom was organized with accent on the military.

Though Saivism continued to be the religion of the masses, intellectuals favoured revival of Vedic rituals. They sought to reconcile the Vaishnavites and the Saivites through the worship of Harihara. Arts and literature found patrons in the Kakatiyas and their feudatories. Tikkana Somayaji, who adorned the court of the Telugu Chola ruler Manumasiddhi II, wrote the last 15 cantos of the Mahabharata which was lying unfinished. Sanskrit, which could not find a place in the Muslim-occupied north, received encouragement at the hands of the Kakatiyas. Prataparudra was himself a writer and he encouraged other literature.

The Kakatiya dynasty expressed itself best through religious art. Kakatiya art preserved the balance between architecture and sculpture, that is, while valuing sculpture, it laid emphasis on architecture where due. The Kakatiya temples, dedicated mostly to Siva, reveal in their construction a happy blending of the styles of North India and South India which influenced the political life of the Deccan.

The most important of these temples are those at Palampeta, Hanamkonda and the incomplete one in the Warangal fort. The temple at Palampeta, described as the 'brightest gem in the galaxy of Medieval Deccan temple architecture', was constructed by Recherla Rudra, a general of Kakatiya Ganapati, in S.1135 (A.D.1213). The figures in the temple are of a heterogeneous character comprising gods, goddesses, warriors, acrobats, musicians, mithuna pairs in abnormal attitudes and dancing girls. The sculptures, especially of the dancing girls, possess the suggestion of movement and pulsating life. A striking peculiarity of this temple is the figure-brackets which spring from the shoulders of the outer pillars of the temple. The figure-brackets are mere ornaments and represent the intermediate stage between their earlier analogues at Sanchi and the later examples at Vijayanagara.

The Thousand-Pillared Temple at Hanamkonda, built by the Kakatiya king Rudra in A.D.1162, is similar in style and workmanship to the Ramappa temple. This temple, dedicated to Siva, Vishnu and Surya, is star-shaped. The Nandi pavilion, in which a huge granite bull still stands, the beautiful entrances to the shrine, the pierced slabs used for screens and windows, and the elegant open work by which the bracket-shafts are attached to the pillars are the other most interesting features of this temple.

The temple in the Warangal fort, believed to have been built by Kakatiya Ganapati, was constructed making use of large slabs. The floor of the shrine is beautifully polished and shines like a mirror. An interesting feature of this temple is the four gateways called 'Kirti Stambhas' which face the four cardinal points of the compass. In their design the gateways are reminiscent of the 'toranas' of the Great Stupa at Sanchi. The architecture and sculpture of these temples are thus conventional to a degree but no one can deny their magnificence nor can any one fail to see the rich imagination, patient industry and skilful workmanship of the builders of the temples of the Kakatiya period.

Fall of the dynasty

The queen Rudramadevi was succeeded by her grandson Prataparudra (1295-1323). Prataparudra expanded borders towards the west, whilst introducing many administrative reforms, some of which were also later adopted in the Vijayanagar empire. However, the empire was under threat from the Delhi Sultan Alauddin Khilji. Despite defeating the first wave of attack from the Delhi Sultanate in 1303, in 1310 the invading army defeated the King. After agreeing to a large tribute the kingdom was spared. However, after Khilji's death the tribute was withheld which provoked the final and fatal attack on the Kingdom in 1323. Prataparudra was captured by Ulugh Khan (later known as Muhammad bin Tughluq) and died en route to Delhi.
The Kakatiya dynasty ended and resulted in confusion and anarchy under alien rulers for sometime.Two cousins belonging to Musunuri clan kapayya nayudu and prola nayudu who served as army chiefs for Kakatiya kingdom later united the Telugu people and recovered Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate and ruled for half a century.

Legacy

The Kakatiya dynasty is regarded as one of the golden ages in Telugu history. The kingdom was ruled by Telugu speaking hindu rulers who encouraged literature, art and architecture. The Thousand-pillar Temple in Hanmakonda (now merged with Warangal) stands as testimony to this. And the famous Kohinoor diamond which was unearthed near the Golconda fort during their reign, was among the booty carried.

5 comments:

Satheesh Reddy said...
This comment has been removed by the author.
NGUGIE said...

KAKATIYAS WERE ACCORDING TO THE GREAT HISTORIAN PARABRAMHA SASTRY IN HIS BOOK 'KAKATEEYULU' SAID THE KAKATIYAS WERE YADAVAS OF VRISHNI BRANCH.KASE SARWAPPA OF KAKATIYA TIMES WROTE IN HIS BOOK SIDDESWARA CHARITRA THAT KAKATIYAS WERE YADAVAS.IF YOUR CLAIM IS CORRECT,YOU HAVE TO GIVE EVIDENCE OF LITERAY OR INSCRIPTIONAS OF THEIR TIMES,IF YOU HAVE.

Marutheeraja said...

KOTA( DHARANIKOTA) Kings (Dhananjaya' is their Gothram/ Gothra )
ఋషి ప్రవర:-
శ్రీమద్వైశ్వామిత్ర మధుచ్చందో ధనుంజయ త్రయార్షేయ ప్రవరాన్విత ధనుంజయ గోత్ర:.
రాజప్రవర:-భరత్ పరిక్షిత్ విష్ణువర్ధన ప్రవరాన్విత కోట హరిసీమ కృష్ణ మహారాజ వంశ'
(King Bharat - Parikshit - Kubja Vishnuvardhna - Kota Hariseema Krishna Maharaja).
Eastern Chalukya King Kubja Vishnuvardhana was also mentioned in this clan.King Raja Raja Narendra who ruled from Rajahmundry), Kondapadumati Kings belong to this Clan only. Malaya Chiefs (1015 A.D. to 1220 A.D) who ruled from Kovvur.Nidadavolu belt of presnt day west Godavari district also belong to this clan.

" The Kotas of Dhanamjaya Gothra appear as the second among
the four important branches of Kshatriyas in Telugu land"
- page 174 'History of Andhra Country' 1000AD-1500AD by Yashoda Devi. Book published by Gyan Publishing House.

" DHARANIKOTA -
Ganna Bhupala Dantuluri was ruling a tract about Dharanikota about 1400 A.D. was of Kota lineage. Famous Telugu poet Srinatha wrote 'Dhananjaya Vijayam' and dedicated it to Dantuluri Gannabhupala. Mahamuni Kavya Kanta Ganapathi Shastry mentioned in his book that King Dantuluri Gannabhupala gave away his daughter Surambika to Ana Vema Reddy who ruled Addanki. This was mentioned to be the first marriage between Kshatriya and reddy communities"
(Source worldlibrary.org)

King Hariseema krishna who ruled from Dharanikota ( Amaravathi) belong to this Race. King Dantuluri GannaBhoopaludu who patronized Telugu poet Srinadhudu/ Srinadha, King Rudraraju who ruled Nathavati seema ( present day Madhira-Khammam, Nandigama belt of Telengana and Andhra states respectively),
-----------------------
KAKATI / KAKATIYA ( Kashayapa Gothra) :
కాస్యప గోత్రమునకు 2 ఋషి ప్రవరలున్నవి. అవి ఏమనగా:
o శ్రీ మత్ కాశ్యపా వత్సార నైధృవం భరైభం శండిల శాండిల్య సప్తార్షేయ ప్రవరాన్విత కాస్యపగోత్ర:
o శ్రీమత్కాస్యపావత్సార నైధృవత్రయార్షేయ ప్రవరాన్విత కాస్యపగోత్ర:
రాజప్రవర:- కుశపుండరీక కరికాళచోల మహారాజ ప్రవరాన్విత కాకతీయ ప్రోలరాజ వంశ:
( Kusha- Pundareeka - Karikala Chola - Kakatiya Prola Raja Clan)
Kakatiyas are descendants of Karikala Chola King. గుంటూరు జిల్లా మల్కాపురంలో శిధిలావస్థలో ఉన్న ఒక దేవాలయంలో నంది విగ్రహం పై ఒక శాసనం ఉన్నది. దాని నెంబరు 395. (A. R. No. 94 of 1917.). ఈ శాసనం కాకతీయులు సూర్యవంశపు క్షత్రియులని తెలుపుచున్నది. గణపతిదేవుని శాసనం, కాకతీయ కులగురువగు శివదేవముని శాసనం, గణపతిదేవుని దండనాధుని శాసనం మొదలైన శాసనాలు కాకతీయులు క్షత్రియులని తెలుపుచున్నవి.
Kakatiya Gothra is Kashyapa. ' Mandapati ' kings who ruled from Ongole were Kakatiya contemporaries also of Kashyapa Gothra. Mandapati Ramabhadra Raju was famous among the Ongole Mandapati kings. Tanuku original 'Uppalapati' Zamindars also belong to this Gothra only. Kakatiyas had matrimonial alliances with the other Gothra Rajus viz. Eastern Chalukya ( who ruled from Nidadavolu) and Rudrarajus ( Natavati seema kings) of Dhananjaya gothra, Gudimetta Sagi/Chagi/Saagi kings of Vashishta gothra.
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rvs raju said...

KAKATIYAS

" Ganapati Deva's sister Melambika was married to the second son of Chagi Buddaraju, who was ruling Natavadi region. Ganapatideva's first daughter Rudramadevi was married to Veerabhadra, Eastern Chalukyanprince of Nidadavolu and his second daughter Ganapamba was married to Kota Betaraja. After this marital alliance with the three Kshatriya clans of Chagis, Eastern Chalukyas and Kota Vamsa, Kakatiyas started claiming Kshatriya status as evidenced by an inscription found in Guntur District. As Rudramma Devi's husband Veerabhadra was from Eastern Chalukya family of Kashyapa gotra, subsequently Kakatiya rulers mentioned themselves as Kshatriyas of Kashyapa Gotra in their inscriptions."
SOURCE / LINK : http://tourismwarangal.blogspot.in/2012 /09/ kakatiya-dynasty. html

BUT THIS HAS TO BE CHECKED because CHALUKYA KINGS WERE OF 'DHANANJAYA' GOTHRA.
CHAGI'S ARE ' VASHISHTA' GOTHRA. KOTA KINGS ARE OF ' DHNANJAYA' GOTHRA.
RAJUS ( TELUGU KSHATRIYAS) ARE OF FOUR GOTHRAS VIZ. VASHISHTA, DHANANJAYA, KASHYAPA AND KAUNDINYASA . HENCE THE KAKATIYA KINGS' GOTHRA HAS BEEN 'KASHYAPA'.
--------------
The Dynasties that ruled the Telugu land with their origins/roots.
a) PARICHEDIS ( Guhila , Vishnukundin Clan ) - Their gothra 'Vashishta'
b) KOTA/ DHARANI KOTA ( Kubja Vishnuvardhana , Eastern Chalukya Clan) - 'Dhananjaya' gothra
c) KAKATI/KAKATIYA ( Karikala Chola, Kakati Prola Raju Clan) - Their gothra 'Kashyapa'
d) VARNATA ( Aditya chola, Varnata Rajendra Chola Clan) - Their gothra ' Kaundinyasa'
---------------------------------------
'Chagi Dynasty' of Andhra was belonging to Rajus( Telugu speaking Kshatriyas). This term Chagi has become Sagi / Saagi now. Vashshta is their gothra.
Even today this Gothra and Sagi/Saagi surname Rajus are seen.
Anakapalli ( Vizag) Zamindars who had 'Payaka Rao' as their title belonged to this Sagi family only. Padmanbham ( Vizianagaram district,AP) Zamindars also were from Sagi clan only.
Other Telugu Royal families 'Poosapati/Pusapati' kings who ruled from Vizianagaram ( Northern Andhra), Vatsavaya rulers of Peddapuram ( East Godavari district), Kakarlapudi Zamindars of Kota Ramachandrapuram ( east Godavari district) , Thettu
( Nellore district) Vegnedla surname zamindars are 'Vashishta' Gothra Rajus only. Freedom fighter Alluri Seetharama Raju's gothra also Vashishta only.
In fact these 'Vashishta' gothra Rajus are descendants of Vishnukundin and Parichedi dynasties that ruled the Telugu land.

HENCE KAKATIYA KINGS' GOTHRA should be 'Kashyapa' only which exactly fits into the matrimonial / marriage pattern of the Rajus ( telugu Kshatriyas). Kakatiyas mostly married 'Dhananjaya' and 'Vashshta' gothra Rajus.
Ongole Mandapati kings who were contemporaries of Kakatiyas had good relation with them, Mandapati Rajus' gothra is also 'Kashyapa'.
HISTORIANS / SCHOLARS TO LOOK AT THE ABOVE POINTS BEFORE THEY COME TO ANY CONCLUSION.

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